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The Ronald Reagan administration Reagan took office and pledged to reverse the trend toward big government and to rejuvenate the economy, based on the theory that cutting taxes would stimulate so much growth that tax revenues would actually rise. In Maytwo months after there had been an assassination attempt on Reagan, Congress approved his program, which would reduce income taxes by 25 percent over a three-year period, cut federal spending on social programs, and greatly accelerate a military buildup that had begun under Carter.
White House photo In foreign affairs Reagan often took bold action, but the results were usually disappointing. His effort to unseat the leftist Sandinista regime in Nicaragua through aid to the Contrasa rebel force seeking to overthrow the government, was unpopular and unsuccessful.
On October 21,he launched an invasion of the Caribbean nation of Grenadawhere Cuban influence was growing. Popular at home, the invasion was criticized almost everywhere else. Relations with China worsened at first but improved in with an exchange of state visits.
Reagan benefited in the election of from a high degree of personal popularity, from the reduction in inflation, and from the beginnings of economic recovery. This combination proved too much for the Democratic nominee, former vice president Walter Mondale of Minnesotaand his running mate, Congresswoman Geraldine Ferraro of New York, the first female vice presidential candidate ever to be named by a major party.
In he negotiated an intermediate-range nuclear forces INF treaty with the Soviet Union, eliminating two classes of weapon systems that each nation had deployed in Europe. This was the first arms-limitation agreement ever to result in the actual destruction of existing weapons.
Relations between the superpowers had improved radically byowing primarily to the new Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachevwhose reforms at home were matched by equally great changes in foreign policy. An exchange of unusually warm state visits in was followed by Soviet promises of substantial force reductions, especially in Europe.
Gorbachev, Mikhail; Reagan, RonaldU. His popularity remained consistently high, dipping only briefly in after it was learned that his administration had secretly sold arms to Iran in exchange for American hostages and then had illegally used the profits to subsidize the Contras.
In the short run his economic measures succeeded. Inflation remained low, as did unemploymentwhile economic growth continued. Nonetheless, while spending for domestic programs fell, military spending continued to rise, and revenues did not increase as had been predicted.
The result was a staggering growth in the budget deficit. Furthermore, although economic recovery had been strong, individual income in constant dollars was still lower than in the early s, and family income remained constant only because many more married women were in the labour force.
Savings were at an all-time low, and productivity gains were averaging only about 1 percent a year. In Vice Pres. The George Bush administration In foreign affairs Bush continued the key policies of the Reagan administration, especially by retaining cordial relations with the Soviet Union and its successor states.
In December Bush ordered U. Manuel Noriegawho faced drug-trafficking and racketeering charges in the United States. At risk was not only the sovereignty of this small sheikhdom but also U.
Under the auspices of the United NationssomeU. This short and relatively inexpensive war, paid for largely by U. The immense national debt ruled out large federal expenditures, the usual cure for recessions.
The modest bills Bush supported failed in Congress, which was controlled by the Democrats.
In the presidential electionDemocrat Bill Clintonthe governor of Arkansas, defeated Bush in a race in which independent candidate Ross Perot won 19 percent of the popular vote—more than any third candidate had received since Theodore Roosevelt in The Bill Clinton administration The beginning of the s was a difficult time for the United States.
The country was plagued not only by a sluggish economy but by violent crime much of it drug-relatedpoverty, welfare dependency, problematic race relations, and spiraling health costs. Although Clinton promised to boost both the economy and the quality of lifehis administration got off to a shaky start, the victim of what some critics have called ineptitude and bad judgment.
The practical effect of the policy was actually to increase the number of men and women discharged from the military for homosexuality. His first two nominees for attorney general withdrew over ethics questions, and two major pieces of legislation—an economic stimulus package and a campaign finance reform bill—were blocked by a Republican filibuster in the Senate.
In the hope that he could avoid a major confrontation with Congress, he set aside any further attempts at campaign finance reform. During the presidential campaign, Clinton promised to institute a system of universal health insurance.
His appointment of his wife, Hillary Rodham Clintonto chair a task force on health care reform drew stark criticism from Republicans, who objected both to the propriety of the arrangement and to what they considered her outspoken feminism.The 20th century was a time of enormous technological and cultural changes, including two world wars and the Great Depression of the s.
The 20th century was a time of enormous technological and cultural changes, including two world wars and the Great Depression of the s. Developments in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
Native American life in the late 20th and early 21st centuries has been characterized by continuities with and differences from the trajectories of the previous several centuries. One of the more striking continuities is the persistent complexity of native ethnic and political identities.
Updated for ! Check out our lists of the best (and worst) movies of the century so far, ranked by Metascore overall and in a variety of genres.
The 20th century was a time of rapid artistic change and development where preconceived, traditional concepts were challenged. The role of the artist, the relationship between representation and significance, and the growing relevance of mass-produced visual images were considered and redefined.
ii The Effect of Digital Technology on Late 20th and Early 21st Century Culture Jennifer Clarke ABSTRACT Recently, artists have begun using .
Learn about Indiana’s 21st Century Scholars program, which awards four years of undergraduate tuition to qualifying students. Learn about Indiana’s 21st Century Scholars program, which awards four years of undergraduate tuition to qualifying students. An initiative of the Indiana Commission for Higher Education.