His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War.
Substance The idea of a particular substance is the complex idea of a set of coexisting qualities and powers, together with the supposition that there is some unknown substrate upon which they all depend.
Locke is derisive about the confused idea of this something, "we know not what," that is supposed by scholastic philosophers.
Essay II xxiii 2 But he cannot eliminate the concept of substance altogether, since he, too, must account for the existence and coherence of just this group of features. About species or kinds of substances, Locke offers a more sophisticated explanation. As a corpuscularianLocke supposed that individual substances must also have real essences, the primary qualities of their insensible parts, which cause all of their qualities.
But since we cannot observe the "real inner constitutions" of things, we cannot use them for purposes of classification, nor can we even understand their causal influence on our perception. Essay III vi 6 Since Locke doubted that real essences could ever be discovered, he was thrown back on the supposition of an underlying reality which we cannot know.
This account imposes a severe limitation on the possibilities of our knowledge of substances. According to Locke, the mechanical operations of nature remain hidden to us. Careful observation and experimentation may support a reliable set of generalizations about the appearances of the kinds of things we commonly encounter, but we cannot even conceive of their true natures.
Personal Identity Among our ideas of relations, the strongest is that of identity. Locke held that the criteria for identity depend upon the kind of thing we are considering.
Substantial identity requires the unique spatio-temporal history that is just the existence of each substance, but this is not the only consideration in all cases. The identity of the tree outside my window, for example, does not depend on the substantial identity of its parts in fact, they change from day to day and season to season ; what matters in this case is the organization of those parts into a common life.
A similar explanation, Locke held, accounts for the identity of animals and human beings. Essay II xxvii We recognize living bodies at different times by the organization of their material parts rather than by their substantial composition.
In analogous fashion, Locke explained personal identity independently of identity of substance. The idea of the person is that of a moral agent who can be held responsible for his or her actions. Essay II xxvii 9 But Locke used a series of hypothetical examples to show that the identity of an underlying immaterial substance or soul is neither necessary nor sufficient for personal identity in this sense.
Even the identity of the same human body though we may rely upon that for third-person attributions of identity is not truly relevant. The only thing that does matter, on Locke's view, is that the person self-consciously appropriates actions as its own.
This is, as Locke says, a "forensic" notion of personal identity; its aim is to secure the justice and effectiveness of moral sanctions. Essay II xxvii 26 If, and only if, I now remember having committed a particular act in the past can I be justly punished for having done so.
If, and only if, I project myself into the future can the prospect of punishment or reward influence my deliberations about how to act now. Locke's way of thinking about personal identity has shaped discussions of the issue ever since.
His basic notion is clear: Thus, the meaning of a word is always the idea it signifies in the minds of those who use it. Essay III ii 2 Of course, those ideas are presumed in turn to represent things, but the accuracy of that representation does not directly affect the meaning of the word.
The names of substances, for example, signify the complex ideas Locke called their nominal essences, not the real nature of the substances themselves. Thus, common names for substances are general terms by means of which we classify things as we observe them to be; we can agree upon the meaning of such terms even though we remain ignorant of the real essences of the things themselves.
The chief point of Locke's theory of language was to eliminate the verbal disputes that arise when words are used without clear signification. It is always reasonable to ask for the meaning of a word, that is, to know what idea it signifies.
If a speaker cannot supply the idea behind the word, then it has no meaning. Many of the academic squabbles that obstruct advancement in human knowledge, Locke believed, could be dissolved by careful attention to the meaning of words.
Knowledge and its Degrees Having provided a thorough account of the origins of our ideas in experience, Locke opens Book IV of the Essay with a deceptively simple definition of knowledge.
Knowledge is just perception of the agreement or disagreement of our ideas. Essay IV i 2 We know the truth of a proposition when we become aware of the relation between the ideas it conjoins. This can occur in any of three distinct wayseach with its characteristic degree of certainty.
Intuitive knowledge involves direct and immediate recognition of the agreement or disagreement of two ideas. Essay IV ii 1 It yields perfect certainty, but is only rarely available to us. I know intuitively that three is not the same as seven.
In demonstrative knowledge we perceive the agreement or disagreement only indirectly, by means of a series of intermediate ideas.
John Locke was an empiricist who believed that people could acquire knowledge from experience. Ideas acted as raw materials and by knowing the relation of the ideas, we got knowledge. All ideas are based on experience but knowledge can also be justified by intuition and demonstration. curta calculator registry. Name: E-mail: Address: Phone (optional) CURTA(s) ** ** Rick Furr: rfurr(at)timberdesignmag.com John Locke’s Political Philosophy, entry by Alexander Moseley, in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy John Locke Bibliography, maintained by John Attig (Pennsylvania State University). Images of Locke, at the National Portrait Gallery, Great Britain.
Essay IV ii 2 Since demonstration is a chain of reasoning, its certainty is no greater than its weakest link; only if each step is itself intuitively known will the demonstration as a whole be certain.
Although intuition and demonstration alone satisfy the definition of knowledge, Locke held that the belief that our sensory ideas are caused by existing things deserves the name of sensitive knowledge.
Essay IV ii 14 In the presence of a powerful, present idea of sensation, we cannot doubt that it has some real cause outside us, even though we do not know what that cause may be or how it produces the idea in us.curta calculator registry.
Name: E-mail: Address: Phone (optional) CURTA(s) ** ** Rick Furr: rfurr(at)timberdesignmag.com Locke devoted Book III of the Essay to a discussion of language. His basic notion is clear: words signify timberdesignmag.com, the meaning of a word is always the idea it signifies in the minds of those who use it.
(Essay III ii 2) Of course, those ideas are presumed in turn to represent things, but the accuracy of that representation does not directly affect the meaning of the word. John Locke’s Political Philosophy, entry by Alexander Moseley, in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy John Locke Bibliography, maintained by John Attig (Pennsylvania State University).
Images of Locke, at the National Portrait Gallery, Great Britain. By John Dewey This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost A number of times throughout history. and both natural law theorists (Natural law in the sense of Saint Tabula rasa (/ t b j l r a discussion of john lockes theory of knowledge s.
1. Natural Law and Natural Rights. Perhaps the most central concept in Locke’s political philosophy is his theory of natural law and natural rights. John Locke FRS (/ l ɒ k /; 29 August – 28 October ) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".Region: Western philosophy.