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United States Government The Constitution of the United States is the central instrument of American government and the supreme law of the land.
For years it has guided the evolution of governmental institutions and has provided the basis for political stability, individual freedom, economic growth, and social progress.
The Constitution owes its staying power to its simplicity and flexibility. The path to the Constitution was neither straight nor easy. A draft document emerged inbut only after intense debate and six years of experience with an earlier federal union.
The 13 British colonies in America declared their independence from their motherland in A year before, war had broken out between the colonies and Britain, a war for independence that lasted for six bitter years.
The compact, designated the "Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union," was adopted by a congress of the states in and formally signed in July The Articles became binding when they were ratified by the 13th state, Maryland, in March The Articles of Confederation devised a loose association among the states and set up a federal government with very limited powers.
In such critical matters as defense, public finance, and trade, the federal government was at the mercy of the state legislatures. It was not an arrangement conducive to stability or strength.
Within a short time the weakness of the confederation was apparent to all. Politically and economically, the new nation was close to chaos. In the words of George Washington, who would become the first president of the United States inthe 13 states were united only "by a rope of sand.
In February the Continental Congress, the legislative body of the republic, issued a call for the states to send delegates to Philadelphia, in the state of Pennsylvania, to revise the Articles.
The Constitutional Convention convened on May 25,in Independence Hall, where the Declaration of Independence had been adopted 11 years earlier, on July 4, Although the delegates had been authorized only to amend the Articles of Confederation, they pushed aside the Articles and proceeded to construct a charter for a wholly new, more centralized form of government.
The new document, the Constitution, was completed September 17,and was officially adopted March 4, The 55 delegates who drafted the Constitution included most of the outstanding leaders, or Founding Fathers, of the new nation.
They represented a wide range of interests, backgrounds, and stations in life. All agreed, however, on the central objectives expressed in the preamble to the Constitution: The concept of self-government did not originate with the Americans; indeed, a measure of self-government existed in England at the time.
But the degree to which the Constitution committed the United States to rule by the people was unique, even revolutionary, in comparison with other governments around the world.
By the time the Constitution was adopted, Americans had considerable expertise in the art of self-government. Long before independence was declared, the colonies were functioning governmental units, controlled by the people.
Most states had a governor elected by the state legislature. The legislature itself was elected by popular vote. The Articles of Confederation had tried to unite these self-governing states. The Constitution, by contrast, established a strong central, or federal, government with broad powers to regulate relations between the states and with sole responsibility in such areas as foreign affairs and defense.
Centralization proved difficult for many people to accept. America had been settled in large part by Europeans who had left their homelands to escape religious or political oppression, as well as the rigid economic patterns of the Old World that locked individuals into a particular station in life regardless of their skill or energy.
The diversity of the new nation was also a formidable obstacle to unity. The people who were empowered by the Constitution in the 18th century to elect and control their central government represented different origins, beliefs, and interests.
Their religious beliefs were varied and, in most cases, strongly held. Economically and socially, Americans ranged from the landed aristocracy to slaves from Africa and indentured servants working off debts.
Americans then, as now, had widely differing opinions on virtually all issues, including the wisdom of breaking free of the British Crown. Those who stayed behind formed a substantial opposition bloc, although they differed among themselves on the reasons for opposing the Revolution and on what accommodation should be made with the new American republic.
In the past two centuries, the diversity of the American people has increased, and yet the essential unity of the nation has grown stronger. Throughout the 19th century and on into the 20th, an endless stream of immigrants contributed their skills and their cultural heritages to the growing nation.
And as the nation expanded, its vast storehouse of natural resources became apparent to all:sity are other metrics of an extreme cold event. Metrics of duration can be the length of time (e.g., number of days) that a certain minimum threshold of temperature is exceeded or the time for which the multiday average temperature is below a prescribed threshold; intensity, on the other hand, is often measured by the lowest temperature attained.
United States - The Barack Obama administration: The crisis worked against McCain, whom many voters associated with the unpopular policies of the administration, and worked for the highly charismatic Obama, whose campaign from its outset had been based on the theme of sweeping political change.
Obama defeated McCain, becoming the first African American elected to the presidency. Health care in the United States is provided by many distinct organizations.
Health care facilities are largely owned and operated by private sector businesses. 58% of US community hospitals are non-profit, 21% are government owned, and 21% are for-profit. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the United States spent more on health care per capita ($9,), and more on health care.
The United States Constitution requires government spending be approved in bills passed by the United States Congress. Some government functions such as the Federal Reserve System are completely self-funded. Others, like Social Security and Medicare, are partially self-funded but may be subject to administrative shutdowns and failures if the government fails to meet its financial obligations.
The United States Constitution requires government spending be approved in bills passed by the United States Congress. Some government functions such as the Federal Reserve System are completely self-funded.
Others, like Social Security and Medicare, are partially self-funded but may be subject to administrative shutdowns and failures if the government fails to meet its financial obligations.
Submit comments on proposed changes to the Code of Conduct for United States Judges and the Judicial Conduct and Disability Rules by November 13,