Egyptian hieroglyphs with cartouches for the name " Ramesses II ", from the Luxor TempleNew Kingdom The history of literature follows closely the development of civilization.
Some sections are often left out of abridged versions, especially Books Five, Six, and Seven, allegedly because they are tactical in nature and thus obsolete.
It is the antithesis in a dialectical argument whose thesis is the point—made earlier in the analysis—that "war is nothing but a duel [or wrestling match, a better translation of the German Zweikampf] on a larger scale.
This synthesis resolves the deficiencies of the two earlier bald statements, indicating that war is neither "nothing but" an act of brute force nor "merely" a rational act of politics or policy. Rather, it is a dynamic, inherently unstable interaction of the forces of violent emotion, chance, and rational calculation on all sides.
Identifying precisely who was to benefit from reading On War, and precisely how, are perplexing questions. He hoped that such an understanding would improve the judgement of military commanders, but he also believed that "military genius" was more a matter of character, personality, and temperament than of intellect.
Perhaps because of his awareness of his own character, he felt that intellectuals generally made poor commanders. Only a self-conscious intellectual, however, was likely to wrestle with a book like On War.
University Press of Kansas, These are important distinctions; Sumida emphasizes the latter. But Clausewitz was an eclectic thinker who sought to integrate many diverse aspects of the problem, and it is difficult in practice to separate the two goals.
On War certainly was not intended to provide a practical "cookbook" for commanders in the field. That approach is common in military doctrinal writing, and Clausewitz the practical soldier had himself written and taught doctrine during the Napoleonic Wars.
Knowledge, he knew, was not ability, and abstract education must always be accompanied by practical experience. No theory, no general, should have anything to do with psychological and philosophical sophistries.
Actual experience always took precedence over the kind of abstract "truth" that can be transmitted by mere writing. Theory must never conflict with reality, and thus must be essentially descriptive of war, never prescriptive of action.
Alone, his historical studies of Napoleonic campaigns would probably not have altered his approach to theory. As time went on, however, he also made detailed studies of earlier and quite different wars. These included seventeenth-century campaigns like those of Gustavus Adolphus and Turenne, the War of the Spanish Successionand eastern European wars with the Turks.
Thus On War reflects a much wider range of historical experience and a much more sophisticated approach to history as a discipline than did the earlier "Principles of War. Clausewitz, along with broader historical philosophers like Hegel and Ranke, did much to shape our modern understanding of historical inquiry itself.
Sumida argues and, with some caveats, I tend to concur with him that On War is essentially "about learning how to do something—namely, how to exercise supreme command in war.
His rejection of these approaches was based on his conviction that effective command performance in war—and especially at the level of strategic decision—is the product of genius.Stakeholder analysis means many things to different people.
Various methods and approaches have been developed in different fields for different purposes, leading to confusion over the concept and practice of stakeholder analysis. English Literature Glossary of Literary Terms.
This is a reprint from The Essentials of Literature in English PostWords in bold within the text indicate terms cross-referenced to other articles in the book.
Causal Layered Analysis poststructuralism as method. Sohail Inayatullah . Causal layered analysis is offered as a new futures research method. Clausewitz's personality has been treated in a great many different ways.
To the British military historian Michael Howard he was a "soldier's soldier" who wrote a practical military philosophy aimed at . This is a survey course of British literature that covers the great works of the British literary tradition.
Using a Catholic British literature anthology, students study the chronology of poetry and prose from the author of Beowulf to Chesterton. Literature, most generically, is any body of written timberdesignmag.com restrictively, literature refers to writing considered to be an art form, or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value, often due to deploying language in .