SarceeGros Ventres The Confederacy had[ when? The basic social unit of the Niitsitapi above the family was the bandvarying from about 10 to 30 lodges, about 80 to people. European Canadians and Americans mistakenly referred to all the Niitsitapi nations as "Blackfoot",[ citation needed ] but only one nation was called Siksika or Blackfoot.
The New Jersey citation read: Cary Edwardsto seek state recognition. It passed the Assembly and was passed by the Senate on January 7, Edwards later said that debate in the assembly related to the Cohen book see below ; he noted that he and other supporters of recognition had to demonstrate the historical basis of the Ramapough.
At the time, the state had not developed its own criteria or regulations related to tribal recognition.
The state resolution also called for Federal recognition of the Ramapough, but is non-binding in that regard. It recognized the Shinnecock and one other tribe under independent criteria. They did not submit a documented petition until April 23, During the process, it repeatedly offered to have representatives meet with the tribe to review avenues of research, specifically court records and land deeds, for the period in which records are scarce.
The RMI submitted a partial response on January 28, A fully revised petition was determined to be ready for active consideration on March 5, The petition was placed on active consideration status on July 14, It granted the tribe an opportunity to respond, including extensions. It issued its Final Determination rejecting its petition on December 11, This survived an internal BIA appeal in and a federal court appeal in Earlier exonym[ edit ] Until the s, the tribe was frequently referred to as the "Jackson Whites," a derogatory and racist term,  which, according to legend, was either from the name of the Jackson White heirloom potato  or shorthand for "Jacks and Whites", reflecting their multiracial ancestry.
Over time, the latter were believed to have included Dutch settlers reflected in surnames common among the people and later, Hessian soldiersGerman mercenaries who had fought for the British during the American Revolution ; that is, people who were considered suspect by the dominant British Americans.
Thousands of escaped slaves had gone to British-occupied New York City on the promise of freedom. Some left the city for more isolated areas to escape capture after the war. A article noted it was used as a title of contempt.
Cohen, who wrote his doctoral dissertation at Princeton about the Ramapough Mountain people, has confirmed that the old stories were legends, not history.
He said the legend was untrue and was "the continuing vehicle for the erroneous and derogatory stereotype of the Mountain People. Schuyler Patent by William Bond in of Mahwah A number of local historians, genealogists, and archeologists have written about the Ramapough people.
Accounts have changed related to research that has revealed more archeological, historical, linguistic, and other evidence, as well as because of social attitudes. As with other multiracial peoples seeking recognition as Native American tribes, the Ramapough Mountain Indians have encountered differences of opinion over the significance of ethnic ancestry in contrast to cultural and community identity in being recognized as a distinct culture.
The Ramapo were a Munsee -speaking band of the Lenapean Algonquian language -speaking people who occupied a large territory throughout coastal areas of the mid-Atlantic states and along the Delaware River valley. Bands were typically named after their geographic region. Early European colonists thought they were different peoples, but all were Lenape.
Ramapo villages were recorded in the late seventeenth century in western Connecticut, near present-day Bethel and Ridgefield.
In an intact dugout canoe was found underwater near Bethel and identified as possibly Ramapo; it is now held at the Connecticut State Museum of Natural History at the University of Connecticut. Seville, an ethnologist, authenticated two dugout canoes found in Witteck Lake, near Butler, New Jerseyas of Ramapo origin and possibly 1, years old.
The colonial Dutch referred to the Lenape Indian peoples whom they encountered in this mid-Atlantic region, along the lower Hudson and northern New Jersey areas, as the Hackensack, Tappan, Nyack, and Minsi; these were the Dutch-derived names from the Lenape words for the bands, who took the names associated with geographic places.
Kraft says that some of the Ramapough retreated to the mountains by the mid to late seventeenth century, and theorizes they were joined by remnants of the Esopus and possibly Wappinger bands after wars with the Dutch. The historian David Cohen found that early settlers in the Hackensack Valley included "free black landowners in New York City and mulattoes with some Dutch ancestry who were among the first pioneers to settle in the Hackensack River Valley of New Jersey.
As the border between New York and New Jersey split the area of the patent inCohen theorized that some of these early free people of color moved west into the mountains.
In the late 19th century, such Indians were said to use the names given by the Colonials instead of their real names because of superstition. It is a well known fact that displacement of Indian tribes followed European Incursions in the region which resulted in the forced movement and resettlement of Indian peoples.
Myths, as noted in the section on their name, were derived in part from theories of origins, as well as prejudice related to unions with African descendants because slavery had developed in the colonies as a racial caste.
By the mid-nineteenth century, these multi-racial mountain people were concentrated in the settlements of Mahwah and Ringwood, New Jersey ; and Hillburn, New York. Local histories documented traditions of mixed-race descendants from intermarriages with the Lenape in the mountains.
He said that Indian descendants had mixed with Africans and Caucasians.The Three Sisters. The three sisters are Corn, Beans, and Squash. They are seen as the three beautiful sisters because they grow in the same mound in the garden.
CHARACTERS "The World on the Turtle's Back" is the Iroquois' cultural perspective of the creation story, having some similarities to the Catholic creation story minus the big turtle of course.
"The World on the Turtle's Back" is an Iroquois legend that has been passed . Iroquois Creation Myth Long before the world was created there was an island, floating in the sky, upon which the Sky People lived.
They lived quietly and happily. The Ramapough Mountain Indians (also spelled Ramapo), also known as the Ramapough Lenape Nation or Ramapough Lunaape Munsee Delaware Nation, are a group of approximately 5, people living around the Ramapo Mountains of Bergen and Passaic counties in northern New Jersey and Rockland County in southern New York, .
Iroquois and their “legend” The World on the Turtle’s Back Iroquois tell their legend in The World on the Turtle’s Back of how the earth was created and how balance in the world resides. Iroquois are one of many Native American tribes in which still live in the United States today; in fact, there are more than 50, Iroquois living in the United States today.
The World On The Turtle's Back "The World On the Turtle's Back" - Iroquois Creation Myth - a Native American story that explains the creation of the world and their people - passed the story through the generations by telling it in performances - first recorded by David Cusick in the s.