Some are well known. Some will never be known. The individuals here are neither the most important nor the best known; they are simply some representative figures that we have chosen in hopes that their stories may inspire others.
A Preservation Plan for St. By the time those words appeared in The Souls of Black Folk the lines of segregation in America were drawn in thick, bold lines. Louis was no different. Racial segregation was institutionalized in St. Louis by intent, accident, or benign neglect throughout its history, effecting the nature of race relations in the city today.
Louis Race relations in St. Louis were more complex than many other places because the city was located in a border state that permitted slavery.
Urban slavery took on a character of its own. In the home of King Cotton, most slaves lived in plantation or farm settings, having little or no contact with free blacks. While larger plantations tended to be somewhat self-contained units requiring some skilled slaves, the vast majority were unskilled field workers.
Businesses or individuals could "rent" slaves with specific skills such as printing, blacksmithing, horse care, or carpentry. People who lived in St.
Louis and other border cities like it had more frequent contact with slaves with known abilities. This regular contact with both north and south meant that free blacks and slaves walked the same streets, met the same people, and interacted with one another.
This mingling of slave and free heightened the issue of the peculiar institution and its abolition. Louis was a major slave auctioning center during the s, as buyers in the lower Mississippi River dealt with more than two dozen agents in the trade such as Corbin and Thompson on 6th between Pine and Chestnut.
Louis, and a slave pen on Broadway adjacent to today's Busch Stadium. Some 2, hecklers shouted down auctioneers at a public sale on the steps of the Old Courthouse instopping the practice for good in St. Louis mirrors the national experience. Slavery existed and flourished alongside free blacks.
African-Americans in antebellum St. Louis needed licenses to live in the city, and were banned from voting or testifying against whites in court. While a "black aristocracy" of merchants and professionals existed here by the late s, their lives were far more restrictive than those of their white counterparts.
Blacks were subject to housing restrictions, curfews, bans on education, and prohibition from testifying in court against whites. Since white residents came here from different parts of the country, political values clashed.
Pro-slavery folk encouraged the slave trade, supported the ban on educating African-Americans, and may have even owned slaves. A group of them lynched mulatto Francis McIntosh12 intying him to a tree and burning him alive.
Abolitionists ran newspapers and aided fugitives fleeing to freedom. Elijah Lovejoy moved to St. Louis in June of to be editor of the St. Louis Observer, a Presbyterian paper. Within two years pro-southern whites answered his antislavery editorials with threats against the paper's office.
After a series of break-ins at the paper in and a judge publicly denouncing his views, Lovejoy moved to Alton, Illinois, where slavery was illegal since the Northwest Ordinance of Later that year, a pro-slavery mob attacked the paper's office and killed Lovejoy.
Frances Dana Gage met violence as well. A women's rights leader and writer in Ohio, Gage moved to St. She wrote extensively on feminism and temperance in the s and s for regional, national, and agricultural papers.
Horrified by slavery in Missouri, Gage directed her energies here toward abolition. The Missouri Republican responded by merely refusing to publish her fervently antislavery columns, but others took stronger action.
Her home was burned several times before the Civil War.Debating the Civil Rights Movement, by Steven F. Lawson and Charles Payne, is likewise focused on instruction and discussion. This essay has largely focused on the development of the Civil Rights Movement from the standpoint of African American resistance to segregation and the formation organizations to fight for racial, economic, social, and political equality.
As segregation tightened and racial oppression escalated across the U.S., black leaders joined white reformers to form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
Early in its fight for equality, the NAACP used federal courts to challenge segregation. As segregation tightened and racial oppression escalated across the U.S., black leaders joined white reformers to form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
Early in its fight for equality, the NAACP used federal courts to challenge segregation. Racial segregation was institutionalized in St. Louis by intent, accident, or benign neglect throughout its history, effecting the nature of race relations in the city today. The Committee for Social Services Among Colored People organized in the same year as the Urban League nationally-as the first interracial group in the city.
Racial segregation was peculiar neither to the American South nor to the United States (see apartheid). Reconstruction to Segregation assumed its special form in the United States after the Southern states were defeated in the Civil War and slavery was abolished. Jim Crow Laws and Racial Segregation in: Civil Rights, Civil War, Reconstruction, and Progressivism, Eras in Social Welfare History Introduction: Immediately following the Civil War and adoption of the 13th Amendment, most states of the former Confederacy adopted Black .