Genetic diversity and Population genetics An individual organism's phenotype results from both its genotype and the influence from the environment it has lived in. A substantial part of the phenotypic variation in a population is caused by genotypic variation. The frequency of one particular allele will become more or less prevalent relative to other forms of that gene.
Evolution as Fact and Theory by Stephen Jay Gould irtley Mather, who died last year at age ninety, was a pillar of both science and Christian religion in America and one of my dearest friends. The difference of a half-century in our ages evaporated before our common interests.
The most curious thing we shared was a battle we each fought at the same age.
For Kirtley had gone to Tennessee with Clarence Darrow to testify for evolution at the Scopes trial of When I think that we are enmeshed again in the same struggle for one of the best documented, most compelling and exciting concepts in all of science, I don't know whether to laugh or cry.
According to idealized principles of scientific discourse, the arousal of dormant issues should reflect fresh data that give renewed life to abandoned notions. Those outside the current debate may therefore be excused for suspecting that creationists have come up with something new, or that evolutionists have generated some serious internal trouble.
But nothing has changed; the creationists have presented not a single new fact or argument. Darrow and Bryan were at least more entertaining than we lesser antagonists today.
The rise of creationism is politics, pure and simple; it represents one issue and by no means the major concern of the resurgent evangelical right.
Arguments that seemed kooky just a decade ago have reentered the mainstream. The basic attack of modern creationists falls apart on two general counts before we even reach the supposed factual details of their assault against evolution. First, they play upon a vernacular misunderstanding of the word "theory" to convey the false impression that we evolutionists are covering up the rotten core of our edifice.
Second, they misuse a popular philosophy of science to argue that they are behaving scientifically in attacking evolution.
Yet the same philosophy demonstrates that their own belief is not science, and that "scientific creationism" is a meaningless and self-contradictory phrase, an example of what Orwell called "newspeak. Thus creationists can and do argue: If evolution is less than a fact, and scientists can't even make up their minds about the theory, then what confidence can we have in it?
Indeed, President Reagan echoed this argument before an evangelical group in Dallas when he said in what I devoutly hope was campaign rhetoric: It is also a fact.
And facts and theories are different things, not rungs in a hierarchy of increasing certainty. Facts are the world's data.
Theories are structures of ideas that explain and interpret facts. Facts do not go away when scientists debate rival theories to explain them. Einstein's theory of gravitation replaced Newton's, but apples did not suspend themselves in mid-air, pending the outcome.
And humans evolved from apelike ancestors whether they did so by Darwin's proposed mechanism or by some other, yet to be discovered. Evolutionists make no claim for perpetual truth, though creationists often do and then attack us for a style of argument that they themselves favor.
In science, "fact" can only mean "confirmed to such a degree that it would be perverse to withhold provisional assent.
Ah, but super-human AI is not the only way Moloch can bring our demise. How many such dangers can your global monarch identify in time? EMs, nanotechnology, memetic contamination, and all the other unknown ways we’re running to the bottom. Evolution: Science or Creation Story? The uninformed are sometimes of the opinion that the debate over evolution is about science versus the Bible. Evolution as Fact and Theory. by Stephen Jay Gould. irtley Mather, who died last year at age ninety, was a pillar of both science and Christian religion in America and one of my dearest friends.
Evolutionists have been clear about this distinction between fact and theory from the very beginning, if only because we have always acknowledged how far we are from completely understanding the mechanisms theory by which evolution fact occurred.
Darwin continually emphasized the difference between his two great and separate accomplishments: He wrote in The Descent of Man: Hence if I have erred in.
I have at least, as I hope, done good service in aiding to overthrow the dogma of separate creations. The fruitful theoretical debate that Darwin initiated has never ceased. From the s through the s, Darwin's own theory of natural selection did achieve a temporary hegemony that it never enjoyed in his lifetime.
But renewed debate characterizes our decade, and, while no biologist questions the importance of natural selection, many doubt its ubiquity.The theory of evolution is a naturalistic theory of the history of life on earth (this refers to the theory of evolution which employs methodological naturalism and is taught in schools and universities).
Merriam-Webster's dictionary gives the following definition of evolution: "a theory that the various types of animals and plants have their origin in other preexisting types and that the.
THE FALSE ALLURE OF GROUP SELECTION. Human beings live in groups, are affected by the fortunes of their groups, and sometimes make sacrifices that benefit their groups.
Evolution: Science or Creation Story? The uninformed are sometimes of the opinion that the debate over evolution is about science versus the Bible. Human evolution - Theories of bipedalism: There are many theories that attempt to explain why humans are bipedal, but none is wholly satisfactory.
Increased speed can be ruled out immediately because humans are not very fast runners. Because bipedalism leaves the hands free, some scientists, including Darwin, linked it to tool use, especially tools for defense and hunting—i.e., weapons.
Homo heidelbergensis. Fossils assigned to Homo heidelbergensis (named for a mandible found near Heidelberg, Germany) are found throughout the Old World from tropical to temperate zones at sites dating to the Middle Pleistocene dated (Approximately) between , and , years ago.
These sites include Bodo and Kabwe in Africa, Petralona, Arago and Sima de los Huesos in Europe, Dali and.
Alfred Wegener's Continental Drift Theory. We are taught that modern scientists are driven only by reason and facts. It was only early scientists like Galileo who needed to .