Arrangements[ edit ] Law firms are organized in a variety of ways, depending on the jurisdiction in which the firm practices. Sole proprietorshipin which the attorney is the law firm and is responsible for all profit, loss and liability; General partnershipin which all the attorneys who are members of the firm share ownership, profits and liabilities; Professional corporationswhich issue stock to the attorneys in a fashion similar to that of a business corporation; Limited liability companyin which the attorney-owners are called "members" but are not directly liable to third party creditors of the law firm prohibited as against public policy in many jurisdictions but allowed in others in the form of a "Professional Limited Liability Company" or "PLLC" ; Professional associationwhich operates similarly to a professional corporation or a limited liability company; Limited liability partnership LLPin which the attorney-owners are partners with one another, but no partner is liable to any creditor of the law firm nor is any partner liable for any negligence on the part of any other partner. The LLP is taxed as a partnership while enjoying the liability protection of a corporation. Restrictions on ownership interests[ edit ] In many countries, including the United States, there is a rule that only lawyers may have an ownership interest in, or be managers of, a law firm.
In the 16th century some refugees from the Spanish expulsion came to Walachia from the Balkan Peninsula. A few served as physicians and even diplomats at the court of the sovereigns of Walachia.
Since it was on the trade routes between Poland - Lithuania and the Ottoman Empire many Jewish merchants traveled through Moldavia, the second Romanian principality in the northeastfounded in the middle of the 14th century.
Some settled there and were favorably received by the rulers of this underpopulated principality. At the beginning of the 16th century there were Jewish communities in several Moldavian towns, such as Jassy IasiBotosani, Suceava, and Siret.
More intensive waves of Jewish immigration resulted from the Chmielnicki massacres — From the beginning of the 18th century, the Moldavian rulers granted special charters to attract Jews. While still in Poland they were told about the advantages offered exemption from taxes, ground for prayer houses, ritual baths, and cemeteries.
They were invited either to reestablish war-ravaged townsSuceava or to enlarge othersFocsani. The newcomers were encouraged by the landowners to found commercial centers, the so-called burgs. Among the privileges offered was the right to be represented on the local council.
In some cases they undertook to attract other Jews from over the borders. When two counties of Moldavia were annexed by their neighbors Bukovina by Austria in and Bessarabia by Russia inthe Jews from these countries preferred to move to Romanian Moldavia, where they were not harassed by the authorities and had both family and business connections.
Jewish merchants exported leather, cattle, and corn. Many of the Jews were craftsmen, such as furriers, tailors, boot makers, tinsmiths, and watchmakers. From an early date, one of the main components of anti-Jewish hatred in Romania was commercial competition.
Inthe sovereign of Moldavia, Petru Schiopul Peter the Lameordered the banishment of the Jews on the grounds that they were ruining the merchants. In the Danube harbors, it was the Greek and Bulgarian merchants who incited riots against the Jews, especially during Easter. Anti-Jewish excesses that occurred in the neighboring countries often extended to Romania.
In andCossacks invaded Romania, murdering a great number of Jews in Jassy. Greek Orthodox Christianity also preached intolerance toward Jews and shaped the first codes of law: Both proclaimed the Jews as heretics and forbade all relations with them.
With the exception of physicians, Jews were not accepted as witnesses in trials. In the codes of andthe Jews are scarcely mentioned.
On the other hand, the first books of anti-Jewish incitement of a religious character appeared around this time: Communal Institutions Ina hakham bashi, Bezalel Cohen, was first appointed for Walachia and Moldavia by the suzerain, the sultan.
He resided in Jassy and he had a representative for Walachia in Bucharest. The hakham bashi's function was hereditary and included the right of collecting taxes on religious ceremonies and contributions from every head of a family — comprising 30, taxpayers altogether in the two principalities in — as well as conferring exemption from taxes and tolls.
Yet his prestige was slight, and learned rabbis were considered by the Jews as their real spiritual leaders.
A rendering of the Oradea synagoue in Romania, c. The growing Russian and Galician element in the Romanian Jewish population at the beginning of the 19th century opposed the hakham bashi, since such an institution was unknown to them and many of them were followers of Hasidism and led by zaddikim.
As they were foreign subjects they asked their consuls to intercede and, inthe prince of Moldavia decided that the hakham bashi should have jurisdiction only over "native" Jews.
Because of strife among the diverse groups of Jews and their complaints to the authorities, the hakham bashi system was abolished in The Jews also had a guild, one of 32 guilds set up according to nationality or profession, which took care of tax collection proportionately to the number of persons organized in it.
For the Jews, the guild was really the legal body of the community. The collective tax was paid from the tax on kosher meat, the expenses of the institutions talmud torah, hekdesh, cemetery were covered by the remainder.
The center of the guild was in Jassy, and its head was named staroste "senior"; Heb.You may have arrived at this page because you followed a link to one of our old platforms that cannot be redirected. Cambridge Core is the new academic platform from Cambridge University Press, replacing our previous platforms; Cambridge Journals Online (CJO), Cambridge Books Online (CBO), University Publishing Online (UPO), Cambridge Histories Online (CHO), Cambridge Companions Online (CCO.
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