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Language types Machine and assembly languages A machine language consists of the numeric codes for the operations that a particular computer can execute directly. Machine language instructions typically use some bits to represent operations, such as addition, and some to represent operands, or perhaps the location of the next instruction.
Machine language is difficult to read and write, since it does not resemble conventional mathematical notation or human language, and its codes vary from computer to computer. Assembly language is one level above machine language. It uses short mnemonic codes for instructions and allows the programmer to introduce names for blocks of memory that hold data.
Assembly language is designed to be easily translated into machine language. Although blocks of data may be referred to by name instead of by their machine addresses, assembly language does not provide more sophisticated means of organizing complex information.
Like machine language, assembly language requires detailed knowledge of internal computer architecture. Algorithmic languages Algorithmic languages are designed to express mathematical or symbolic computations.
They can express algebraic operations in notation similar to mathematics and allow the use of subprograms that package commonly used operations for reuse.
They were the first high-level languages. It was intended for scientific computations with real number s and collections of them organized as one- or multidimensional arrays. Its control structures included conditional IF statements, repetitive loops so-called DO loopsand a GOTO statement that allowed nonsequential execution of program code.
It was immediately successful and continues to evolve. Like LISP described in the next sectionALGOL had recursive subprograms—procedures that could invoke themselves to solve a problem by reducing it to a smaller problem of the same kind. ALGOL introduced block structure, in which a program is composed of blocks that might contain both data and instructions and have the same structure as an entire program.
Block structure became a powerful tool for building large programs out of small components. ALGOL contributed a notation for describing the structure of a programming language, Backus—Naur Form, which in some variation became the standard tool for stating the syntax grammar of programming languages.
ALGOL was widely used in Europe, and for many years it remained the language in which computer algorithms were published.
Many important languages, such as Pascal and Ada both described laterare its descendants. LISP uses a very simple notation in which operations and their operands are given in a parenthesized list.
Although this appears awkward, the notation works well for computers. LISP also uses the list structure to represent data, and, because programs and data use the same structure, it is easy for a LISP program to operate on other programs as data.
Its capacity to structure data and programs through the composition of smaller units is comparable to that of ALGOL. It uses a compact notation and provides the programmer with the ability to operate with the addresses of data as well as with their values.
A committee of computer manufacturers and users and U. Business computations organize and manipulate large quantities of data, and COBOL introduced the record data structure for such tasks.The C# Cookbook offers a definitive collection of solutions and examples for this new programming language.
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